## Ana Stephens

### Researcher

Ana Stephens is a Researcher at the Wisconsin Center for Education Research. Her research concerns the development of students' algebraic thinking in the elementary grades.

Recent Publications:

Stephens, A., Veltri Torres, R., Sung, Y., Strachota, S., Murphy Gardiner, A., Blanton, M., Stroud, R., & Knuth, E. (2021). From "You have to have three numbers and plus sign" to "It's the exact same thing": K–1 students learn to think relationally about equations. *Journal of Mathematical Behavior. 62.* doi.org/10.1016/j.jmathb.2021.100871

Stephens, A., Stroud, R., Strachota, S., Stylianou, D., Blanton, M., Knuth, E., & Gardiner, A. M. (2021). What early algebra knowledge persists one year after an elementary grades intervention? *Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 52*(3), 332–348.

Stephens, A., Sung, Y., Strachota, S., Veltri Torres, R., Morton, K., Murphy Gardiner, A., Blanton, M., Knuth, E., & Stroud, R. (2020). The Role of Balance Scales in Supporting Productive Thinking about Equations Among Diverse Learners. *Mathematical Thinking and Learning*. DOI: 10.1080/10986065.2020.1793055

Blanton, M., Stroud, R., Stephens, A., Gardiner, A., Stylianou, D., Knuth, E., Isler, I., & Strachota, S. (2019). Does early algebra matter? The effectiveness of an early algebra intervention in grades 3–5. *American Educational Research Journal*, 56(5), 1930–1972.

Blanton, M., Isler-Baykal, I., Stroud, R., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., & Murphy Gardiner, A. (2019). Growth in children’s understanding of generalizing and representing mathematical structure and relationships. *Educational Studies in Mathematics*, 102, 193–219.

Blanton, M., Brizuela, B., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., Isler, I., Gardiner, A., Stroud, R., Fonger, N., & Stylianou, D. (2018). Implementing a framework for early algebra. In C. Kieran (Ed.), *Teaching and Learning Algebraic Thinking with 5- to 12-year-olds. The Global Evolution of an Emerging Field of Research and Practice* (pp. 27–49). Springer International Publishing.

Fonger, N. L., Stephens, A., Blanton, M., Isler, I., Knuth, E., Gardiner, A. (2018). Developing a learning progression for curriculum, instruction, and student learning: An example from mathematics education. *Cognition and Instruction, 36*(1), 30-55.

Stephens, A., Ellis, A., Blanton, M., & Brizuela, B. (2017). Algebraic thinking in the elementary and middle grades. In J. Cai (Ed.). *Compendium of research on mathematics teaching and learning *(pp. 386-420). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Stephens, A. C., Fonger, N. L., Strachota, S., Isler, I., Blanton, M., Knuth, E., & Gardiner, A. (2017). A learning progression for elementary students’ functional thinking. *Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 19*(3), 143-166.

Stephens, A. & Knuth, E. (2017). Algebraic reasoning in grades 6-8. In M. Battista (Ed.). *Reasoning and Sense Making in the Mathematics Classroom: **Grades 6-8 *(pp. 47-71). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Knuth, E., Stephens, A., Blanton, M., & Gardiner, A. (2016). Building an early foundation for algebra success. *Phi Delta Kappan*, *97*(6), 65-68.

Stephens, A. with Blanton, M. (2016). Algebraic reasoning in prekindergarten-grade 2. In M. Battista (Ed.). *Reasoning and Sense Making in the Mathematics Classroom: Pre-K-Grade 2 *(pp. 71-104). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Knuth, E., & Stephens, A. (2016). The equal sign *does* matter. In E. Silver & P. Kenney (Eds.), *More lessons learned from research: Volume 2: Useful research on teaching important mathematics to all students *(pp. 135–140)*. *Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Blanton, M., Stephens, A., Knuth, E., Gardiner, A., Isler, I., & Kim, J. (2015). The development of children's algebraic thinking: The impact of a comprehensive early algebra intervention in third grade.* Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 46*(1), 39-87.

Stephens, A., Blanton, M., Knuth, E., Isler, I., & Gardiner, A. (2015). Just say YES to early algebra! *Teaching Children Mathematics, 22*(2), 92–101.

#### Contact Information

acstephens@wisc.edu

Phone: (608) 890-4374

Office: 683 Ed Sciences

#### Current Projects

Project LEAP: Extending a Grades 3-5 Early Algebra Learning Progression into Grades K-2Cultivating Knowledge of Mathematical Equivalence

#### Completed Projects

Anchoring Problems in Technology-Rich Environments to Enhance the Math Skills of Adolescents with DisabilitiesAdvancing the Math Skills of Low-Achieving Adolescents in Technology-Rich Learning Environments

Revision of the Mathematics in Context Materials

Developing Algebra-Ready Students for Middle School: Exploring the Impact of Early Algebra

Collaborative Research: The Impact of Early Algebra on Students' Algebra-Readiness

The Impact of a Teacher-Led Early Algebra Intervention on Children's Algebra-Readiness for Middle School

Identifying Effective Instructional Practices that Foster the Development of Algebraic Thinking in Elementary School

Building a Grades K-2 Early Algebra Learning Progression Prototype for Diverse Populations